• General: Size – 11-13cm, Wing Span – 19-22cm,
Weight – 11-20g, pale and conical bill, dark eyes. Flight
is undulating with a flap-flap then glide pattern.
• Male Breeding (Alternate): Yellow body, black cap and
forehead, black wings with distinct white wingbars, pale rump
and legs, dark retricies, yellow bill
• Female Breeding (Alternate): Yellow body, yellow bill,
black wings with white wingbars, dark retricies
• Male Non-Breeding (Basic): dull yellow head, brown body,
less bright overall, dark wings and retricies
• Female Non-Breeding (Basic): Olive brown body, pale yellow
throat, dark brown-black wings with pale wingbars, white belly
• Juvenal: Brown body, dark wings with buffy wing tips
and wingbars. Males darker than females.